‘Aashooraa’: Celebration or Mourning?

Summarised from his Book ‘Al-Fataawa al-Kubra’ Part 5
CallToIslam.com

[Q]: What is the ruling on those actions performed on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, such as wearing kohl, taking a bath (ghusl), using henna, shaking hands with one another, cooking grains (huboob), showing happiness and so on…? Has any saheeh hadeeth to that effect been narrated from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم)? If there is no saheeh hadeeth to that effect, does doing these things constitute bid’ah (innovation)? What about the things that the other people do, such as mourning, grieving, going without anything to drink, eulogizing, wailing, rending their garments, etc.? Is there any basis for these actions?

[A]: All Praise is to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds. Nothing to that effect has been reported in any Saheeh Hadeeth from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) or from his Companions (radiyallaahu anhu). None of the Imaams of the Muslims encouraged or recommended such things, neither the four Imaams, nor any others. No reliable scholars have narrated anything like this, neither from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), nor from the Sahabah (radiyallaahu anhum), nor from the Taabi’een; neither in any saheeh report nor in a da’eef (weak) report; neither in the books of Saheeh, Sunan, nor in the Musnads.

No hadeeth of this nature was known during the best centuries, but some of the later narrators reported ahaadeeth like the one which says:

“Whoever puts kohl in his eyes on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not suffer from eye disease in that year, and whoever takes a bath (does ghusl) on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ will not get sick in that year, etc.”

They also narrated reports concerning the supposed virtues of praying on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ and other reports saying that on the day of ‘Aashooraa’ Adam (عليه وسلم) repented, the Ark settled on Mount Joodi, Yoosuf (عليه وسلم) returned to Ya’qoob (عليه وسلم), Ibraaheem (عليه وسلم) was saved from the fire, the ram was provided for sacrifice instead of Ismaa’eel (عليه وسلم), and so on.

They also reported a fabricated ahadeeth that is falsely attributed to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), which says:

“Whoever is generous to his family on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, Allaah will be generous to him for the rest of the year.”

[Then Ibn Taymiyah discussed the two misguided groups who were in Koofah, Iraq, both of whom took ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival because of their bid’ah]

The Raafidhi group made an outward show of allegiance to the Ahl al-Bayt although inwardly they were either heretics and disbelievers or ignorant and bound by whims and desires. The Naasibi group hated ‘Ali (radiyallaahu anhu) and his companions, because of the troubles and killings that had occurred.

It is reported in Saheeh Muslim that the Prophet of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“In (the tribe of) Thaqeef there will be a liar and an oppressor.

The liar was al-Mukhtaar ibn Abi ‘Ubayd al-Thaqafi, who made an outward show of allegiance to and support of the Ahl al-Bayt, and killed ‘Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyaad, the governor of Iraq, who had equipped the party that killed al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali; then he (al-Mukhtaar) made it clear that he was a liar, by claiming to be a prophet and that Jibreel (عليه وسلم) brought revelation to him. People told Ibn Umar and Ibn ‘Abbas about this, and said to one of them: “al-Mukhtaar ibn Abi ‘Ubayd is claiming to receive revelation.” He said: “He is telling the truth, for Allaah says:

“Shall I inform you (O people) upon whom the shayaateen (devils)
descend? They descend upon every lying, sinful person.”
[Soorah ash-Shoorah (26): 221]

They said to the other: “Al-Mukhtaar is claiming that he receives inspiration.” He said, “He is telling the truth:

“And certainly, the Shayaateen (devils) do inspire their friends (from mankind) to dispute with you.” [Soorah al-An’am (6): 121]

As for the oppressor, this was al-Hajjaaj ibn Yoosuf al-Thaqafi, who was opposed to ‘Ali and his companions. Al-Hajjaaj was a Naasibi and al-Mukhtaar was a Raafidhi, and this Raafidhi was a greater liar and more guilty of fabrication and heresy, because he claimed to be a prophet…

There was much trouble and fighting between these two groups in Kufa. When al-Husayn ibn ‘Ali was killed on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, he was killed by the sinful, wrongdoing group. Allaah honored al-Husayn with martyrdom, as He honored other members of his family, and raised his status, as He honored Hamzah, Ja’far, his father Ali and others.

Al-Husayn and his brother al-Hasan are the leaders of the youth of Paradise. High status can only be attained through suffering as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, when he was asked which people suffer the most:

“The Prophets, then righteous people, then the next best and the next best. A man will suffer according to his level of faith. If his faith is solid, he will suffer more, but if his faith is shaky, he will suffer less. The believer will keep on suffering until he walks on the earth with no sin.” [Tirmidhee and others]

Al-Hasan and al-Husayn achieved the high status by the help and decree of Allaah. They did not suffer as much as their forefathers had, for they were born and raised during the glory days of Islam, and the Muslims respected and honored them. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) died when they were still young, and Allaah blessed them by testing them in such a manner that they would be able to catch up with the rest of their family members, as those who were of a higher status than them were also tested. Ali ibn Abi Taalib (radiyallaahu anhu) was better than them, and he was killed as a
shaheed (martyr).

The killing of al-Husayn was one of the things that caused fitnah (tribulation) among the people, as was the killing of Uthmaan, which was one of the greatest causes of fitnah, because of which the ummah is still split today. Thus, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“There are three things, whoever is saved from them is truly saved: my
death, the killing of a patient khaleefah, and the Dajjaal (‘antichrist’).”

[Then, Shaykh al-Islaam mentioned a little about the
biography of al-Hasan and his just character and he said:]

‘Then he died, and Allaah was pleased with him and honored him. Some
groups wrote to al-Husayn and promised to support and help him if he went ahead and declared himself khaleefah, but they were not sincere. When al-Husayn sent his cousin [son of his paternal uncle] to them, they broke their word and gave help to the one they had promised to defend him against, and fought with him against [al-Husayn’s cousin]. Those who were wise and who loved al-Husayn, such as Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiyallaahu anhu) and Ibn Umar (radiyallaahu anhu) and others, advised him not to go to them, and not to accept any promises from them. They thought that his going to them served no useful interest and that the consequences would not be good.

Things turned out just as they said, and this is how Allaah decreed it would happen. When al-Husayn went out and saw that things were not as he had expected, he asked them to let him go back, or to let him join the army that was defending the borders of Islam, or join his cousin Yazeed, but they would not let him do any of these things unless he gave himself up to them as a prisoner. So he fought with them, and they killed him and some of those who were with him, and he was wrongfully slain so he died as a shaheed whose martyrdom brought him honor from Allaah, and thus he was reunited with the
good and pure members of his family. His murder brought shame on those who had wrongfully killed him, and caused much mischief among the people. An ignorant, wrongful group who were either heretics and hypocrites, or misguided and misled made a show of allegiance to him and the members of his household, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a day of mourning and wailing, in which they openly displayed the rituals of jaahiliyyah such as slapping their cheeks and rending their garments, grieving in the manner of the jaahiliyyah.

But what Allaah has commanded us to do when disaster strikes? One is to bear with patience and fortitude when disaster strikes, seek reward, and remember that all things come from Allaah and we must return to Him:

“… but give glad tidings to al-saabiroon (the patient ones), who, when afflicted with calamity, say: ‘Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.’ They are those on whom are al-salawaat (the blessings) (i.e., who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided ones.” [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:155-157]

It is reported in al-Saheeh that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“He is not one of us who strikes his cheeks, rends his garments and prays with the prayer of Jaahiliyyah.”

And he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“I have nothing to do with those who strike [their cheeks], shave [their
heads] and rend [their garments].”

“If the woman who wails does not repent before she dies, she will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection wearing trousers made of tar and a shirt of scabs.”

In al-Musnad, it is reported from Faatimah bint al-Husayn, from her father al-Husayn, that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“There is no man who suffers a calamity, and when he remembers it, even if it is old, he says ‘Innaa Lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon (Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return),’ Allaah will give a reward equal to the reward He gave him on the day he suffered the calamity.

This is how Allaah honors the believers. If the disaster suffered by al-Husayn, and other disasters, are mentioned after all this time, we should say “Innaa Lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi raaji’oon” – Truly, to Allaah we belong and truly, to Him we shall return – as Allaah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) commanded, so as to be given the reward like that earned on the day of the disaster itself. If Allaah commanded us to be patient and steadfast and to seek reward at the time of the disaster, then how about after the passing of time?

The Shaytaan made this attractive to those who are misled, so they took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as an occasion of mourning, when they grieve and wail, recite poems of grief and tell stories filled with lies. Whatever truth there may be in these stories, serves no purpose other than the renewal of their grief and sectarian feeling, and the stirring up of hatred and hostility among the Muslims, which they do by cursing those who came before them, and telling many lies, and causing much trouble in the world.

The various sects of Islam have never known any group tell more lies or cause more trouble or help the kuffaar against the Muslims more than this misguided and evil group. They are even worse than the Khawaarij who went beyond the pale of Islam. They are the ones of whom the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“They will kill the people of Islam and will leave alone the people who worship idols.”

This group cooperated with the Jews, Christians and mushrikeen against the members of the Prophet’s household and his believing ummah. The evil and harm that they do to the Muslims cannot be enumerated by any man, no matter how eloquent he is.

Some others either Naasibis who oppose and have enmity towards al-Husayn and his family or ignorant people who try to fight evil with evil, corruption with corruption, lies with lies and bid’ah with bid’ah opposed them by fabricating reports in favor of making the day of ‘Aashooraa’ a day of celebration, by wearing kohl and henna, spending money on one’s children, cooking special dishes and other things that are done on ‘Eeds and special occasions. These people took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival like ‘Eed, whereas the others took it as a day of mourning. Both are wrong, and both go against the Sunnah, even though the other group (the Rafidis) are worse in intention and more ignorant and more plainly wrong…

But Allah commands us to be just and to treat others well. Prophet
(صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“Those of you who live after my death will see many disputes. I urge
you to adhere to my Sunnah and the sunnah of my rightly-guided
successors (al-khulafa’ al-raashidoon) who come after me. Hold
onto it as if biting it with your teeth. Beware of newly-innovated
matters, for every innovation is a going astray.”

Neither the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), nor his rightly guided
successors did any of these things on the day of ‘Aashooraa’, they neither made it a day of mourning nor a day of celebration.

But “when the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came to Madeenah, he saw the Jews fasting on the day of ‘Aashooraa’. He said, “What is this?” They said, ‘This is the day when Allaah saved Moosa from drowning, so we fast on this day.’ He said: “We have more right to Moosa (عليه وسلم) than you.” [Saheeh Bukharee]

So he fasted on that day and commanded [the Muslims] to fast on that day. He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did not tell ordinary Muslims to fast on ‘Aashooraa’, but he used to say:

“This is the day of ‘Aashooraa’; I am fasting on this day and whoever wishes to fast on this day may fast.”

And he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:

“Fasting on ‘Aashooraa’ expiates for the sins of one year and fasting on the day of ‘Arafaah expiates for the sins of two years.”

When, towards the end of his life, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) heard that the Jews took the day of ‘Aashooraa’ as a festival, he said:

“If I live until next year, I will certainly fast on the ninth”

to be different from the Jews, and not to resemble them in taking the day as a festival.

As for the other things, such as cooking special dishes with or without grains, or wearing new clothes, or spending money on one’s family, or buying the year’s supplies on that day, or doing special acts of worship such as special prayers or deliberately slaughtering an animal on that day, or saving some of the meat of the sacrifice to cook with grains, or wearing kohl and henna, or taking a bath (ghusl), or shaking hands with one another, or visiting one another, or visiting the mosques and mashhads (shrines) and so on… all of this is reprehensible bid’ah and is wrong.

None of it has anything to do with the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) or the way of the Khulafa’ al-Raashidoon.

It was not approved of by any of the Imaams of the Muslims, not Maalik, not al-Thawri, not al-Layth ibn Sa’d, not Abu Haneefah, not al-Awzaa’ee, not al-Shaafa’i, not Ahmad ibn Hanbal, not Ishaaq ibn Raahwayh, not any of the Imaams and scholars of the Muslims.

The religion of Islam is based on two principles: that we should worship
nothing besides Allaah Alone, and that we should worship Him in the manner that He has prescribed, (i.e: the Qur’aan and the Sunnah of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) not by means of bid’ah or reprehensible
innovations. Allaah says:

“… So whoever hopes for the Meeting with his Lord, let him work
righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his
Lord.” [Soorah al-Kahf (18): 110]

Righteous deeds are those, which are loved by Allaah and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), those which are prescribed in Islam and in the Sunnah. Thus, Umar ibn al-Khattaab used to say in his du’aa’:

“O Allaah, make all of my deeds righteous and make them purely for Your sake, and do not let there be any share for anyone or anything else in them.”

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Fasting and Shortening the Prayer for the Traveler

Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah was asked  about the traveler in the month of Ramadhan who is fasting and is rebuked for doing so. He is called ignorant, and it is said to him that breaking his fast is better.
And what is the distance required in order to shorten (the prayers)? If the day has begun in which one is to travel does he break his fast? Is the fast broken by those who lease out donkeys for hire, merchants, those who lease out camels, the sailor, and those traveling
by sea? And what is the difference between travelling for an act of obedience and traveling for an act of disobedience?

He Answered:
Praise be to Allah: Breaking the fast for one travelling is permissible according to the agreement of the Muslims, whether one is traveling for Hajj, Jihad, trading etc., or other cases of travels that are not disliked by Allah and His Messenger (salAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam).

They disputed over traveling for an act of disobedience, like one who travels for highway robbery and the like, for which there are two views, and they also disputed over shortening the prayer.

In the case of the journey for which shortening prayer is allowed, breaking the fast is permissible as long as it is later made up according to the agreement of the Imams. Breaking the fast is allowable for the traveler whether he was able to fast or unable to fast,
whether it was easy for him to fast or not. Even if he was traveling in the shade with provisions and a servant, he is allowed to break his fast.

Whoever alleges that breaking the fast is only allowed for one unable to fast, then such a person is to be asked to repent. He either repents, or he is to be killed. Whoever condemns the traveler who breaks his fast is also sought to repent. Whoever says the traveler who breaks his fast commits a sin, he is also sought to repent.

All of these cases contradict the Book of Allah, and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and they contradict the consensus of the Ummah.

It is also the Sunnah for the traveler to pray the four Rak`ah prayer as two Rak`ahs only. Shortening is better than performance of the normal four Rak`ahs of the prayer according to the four Muslim Imams; Malik, Abu Hanifah, Ahmad and Ash Shafi`i in the most correct of his views.

The Ummah did not dispute over the permissibility of breaking fast for the traveler. They disputed over the permissibility of fasting. A group of the predecessors and the successors consider that the one fasting while traveling is like the one breaking his fast while a resident, and that his fast is not rewarded at all and he must make it up. This is
reported from `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf, Abi Hurayrah, and others among the predecessors. And this is the Madhhab of the Dhahiriyah.

In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “It is not an act of righteousness to fast while traveling” [Bukhari and Muslim]

But the Madhhab of the four Imams is that it is permissible for the traveler to fast or to break his fast.

As reported in the Two Sahihs on the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him: “We used to travel with the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam); some of us would fast, and some of us would break their fast. Neither the fasting would criticize the one breaking his fast, nor would the one breaking his fast criticize the one fasting.”

Allah, the Almighty said: And whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number (of fasting days missed must be made up) from other days. Allah intends ease for you, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.

It is recorded in the Musnad that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Indeed, Allah likes that His permission be adopted, just as He hates that acts of disobedience be committed” [Ahmad bin Hanbal]

It is recorded in the Sahih that a man said to the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “I am a man that fasts often. Am I allowed to fast while traveling?”

He (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“If you break your fast, this is good. And if you fast, there is no harm.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]

In another Hadith he (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:
“The best among you are those who shorten their prayers and do not fast while traveling.” [Abdur-Razzaq]

As for the distance for shortening the prayer and breaking one’s fast: In accordance with the Madhhab of Malik, Ash Shafi`I and Ahmad, it is a journey of two days on foot or by camels. It is sixteen Farsakhs (approx. three miles each), equal to the distance between
Makkah and Usfan, or Makkah and Jeddah.

Abu Hanifah said it is a journey of three days. A group of the predecessors and the successors said that one is permitted to shorten the prayer and break the fast for traveling for less than two days. This is a strong view since it is confirmed that the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would perform the prayer at `Arafah, Muzdalifah, and
Mina in shortened fashion. Behind him were the inhabitants of Makkah and others following him. He did not command any of them to complete the prayer.

If one travels during a day, it is permissible for him to break his fast? There are two wellknown sayings of the scholars of Fiqh, both of which are reported via two narrations from Ahmad.

The Most apparent one of them is that it is allowed. As confirmed in the Sunan that some of them companions used to break his fast if they initiated their journey during the day, and they mentioned that it was a Sunnah of the Prophet (salAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

It is confirmed in the Sahih that the Prophet intended to travel while fasting, then he asked for a water container and broke his fast while the people were watching him. [Bukhari and Muslim]

As for the second day (of the travel), undoubtedly, one breaks his fast, even if his journey is only for two days, according to the majority of the Imams and the Ummah.

But if the traveler returns during the second day, the scholars of Fiqh have different wellknown views about the obligation of breaking his fast. But he has to make it up whether he breaks his fast or not.

Those who regularly travels, breaks his fast when he has a place to resort to. Like the trader who imports food and other commodities, the one who hires out his mounts, the

courier who travels for the Muslim interests and the like. The sailor who has a place on the land where he lives, they all have the same ruling.

As for the one who has his household with him on the ship and permanently travels, he is not permitted either to shorten the prayer nor to break his fast.

The dwellers of the desert, like the Bedouin Arabs, the Kurds, the Turks who spend winter in one place and spend summer in another place – while they are traveling from their winter residence to their summer residence they shorten prayers. When they reach
their winter or summer residences they are not permitted to shorten their prayers nor to break their fast, even if they were moving from one location to another in search of pastures.

And Allah knows best.

(taken from ‘The Nature of Fasting’ published by Darussalam)

What are the best righteous deeds after the obligatory duties?

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah was asked the following question:

I asked the Shaykh, who followed in the footsteps of the earlier generations and was the example for the later generations, the most knowledgeable man I have ever met in the east or the west, Taqiy al-Deen Abu’l-‘Abbaas Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah, to point out to me what is the best righteous deed after the obligatory duties.

He (may Allaah have mercy on him) replied as follows:

What you have asked about, the best deed after the obligatory duties, varies from one person to another, depending on what they are able to do and what is best at any given time. So it is not possible to give a comprehensive, detailed answer that suits everyone. But what those who have knowledge of Allaah and His commands are agreed upon is that constantly remembering Allaah (dhikr) is the best thing with which a person may occupy himself in general. Therefore the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah narrated by Muslim says: “ ‘The mufridoon have gone ahead.’ They said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, who are the mufridoon?’ He said, ‘Those men and women who remember Allaah much.’” And Abu Dawood narrated from Abu’l-Dardaa’ (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Shall I not tell you of the best of your deeds and that which is most pure in the sight of your Lord, that which raises you more in status and is better for you than giving gold and silver (in charity), and better than your meeting your enemy and striking their necks and they strike your necks?’ They said, ‘Yes, O Messenger of Allaah.’ He said, ‘Remembering Allaah (dhikr).’”

There is a great deal of Qur’aanic evidence to support this. The least that a person should do is to persist in reciting the adhkaar (pl. of dhikr) which have been narrated from the teacher of good and the leader of the pious (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), such as the adhkaar to be recited at certain times, at the beginning and end of the day, when going to bed and waking up from sleep and after the prescribed prayers; and the adhkaar to be recited on certain occasions, such as that to be said when eating and drinking, when getting dressed, when having intercourse, when entering or leaving the home, the mosque or the washroom, when it rains, when thunder is heard, and so on. Books have been compiled on this topic called ‘Aml al-Yawm wa’l-Laylah (Actions of the Day and Night). One of the best books written on this topic is the small book entitled Saheeh al-Kalim al-Tayyib, which is derived from the book by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah called al-Kalim al-Tayyib; this has been edited by al-‘Allaamah al-Albaani.

Then one should persist in remembering Allaah in general, the best of which is Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah.

There may be some situations where certain kinds of dhikr are preferable, such as saying Subhaana Allaah wa’l-hamdu-Lillaah wa Allaahu akbar wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa Billaah.

Moreover, one should realize that everything that the tongue utters or the heart imagines that may bring one closer to Allaah, such as seeking knowledge or teaching, enjoining what is good and forbidding what is evil, is a kind of dhikr or remembering Allaah. Hence the one who occupies himself in the pursuit of beneficial knowledge after performing the obligatory duties, or who joins a gathering in order to learn or teach, which Allaah and His Messenger have called fiqh or understanding, is also doing something which is one of the best forms of remembering Allaah (dhikr).

If you think about it, you will not find much difference of opinion among the earliest generation concerning what is the best of deeds. Whenever a person is confused he should pray istikhaarah as prescribed in sharee’ah, for the one who prays to Allaah asking Him for that which is best (istikhaarah) will not have any regrets. He should do that a lot, and make a lot of du’aa’, for that is the key to all goodness. He should not be hasty and say “I prayed but I did not get an answer.” He should seek out the times of special virtue, such as the end of the night, the times immediately following the prescribed prayers, the time of the adhaan, when rain is falling, and so on.

Quoted from the essay al-Wasiyyah al-Jaami’ah li Khayr al-Dunya wa’l-Aakhirah, by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allaah have mercy on him), published by al-Maktabah al-Salafiyyah, Cairo.
Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid

Ruling on the Nusayri/Alawi Sect

What follows is Imam ibn Taymiyyah’s, may Allah have mercy on him, answer to a question posed to him about the sect called an-Nusayriyyah (in English they are also known as Alawis/Alawite sect).

The question is very long, as it mentions many Nusayri beliefs and practices, and most of it is not translated for the sake of brevity.

Those who want to see the question in full, they can refer to Ibn Taymiyyah’s Fatawa 35/145. In summary, the questioner mentioned, among other things their legalization of intoxicants, belief in reincarnation; disbelief in resurrection, Paradise and Hellfire; belief that “Five Prayers” (as-Salawat al-Khams) is an expression referring to five names: “`Ali, Hasan, Husayn, Muhsin and Fatimah”, and that mentioning these five names suffices one instead of making ghusl from major impurity, or ablution, or fulfilling other conditions and obligatory actions of the five daily prayers; that `Ali is the creator of the heavens and the earth, and that he is their god in heavens and imam on the earth etc.

What follows is the end of the question and Ibn Tayiyyah’s answer.

Question:

“…Is it permissible for a Muslim (man or woman) to marry them (Nusayris)? Is it permissible to eat the meat of cattle they slaughter? What is the ruling on eating the cheese made from the rennet of their sacrificed animals? What is the ruling on using their dishes and clothes? Is it permissible to bury them with Muslims? Is it permissible to employ them in Muslim ports and handing the ports over to them? Or is it obligatory upon the ruler to cut them off and employ others from among qualified Muslim men; and is there a sin in delaying their explusion?”

Answer:

All Praise is for Allah, Lord of all worlds. These people named “Al-Nusayriyyah”, and other groups from among the Qaraamitah and Baatiniyyah, are greater disbelievers than the Jews and Christians. Nay, they are greater disbelievers than most of the mushrikeen (polytheists from other than Ahl ul-Kitab), and their harm to the Ummah of Muhammad, sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, is greater than the harm of the disbelievers who are in war with Muslims, such as at-Tatar, disbelieving Europeans and others.

For they present themselves in front of ignorant Muslims as supporters and advocates of Ahl ul Bayt, while in reality they do not believe in Allah, or the Messenger, or the Book, or [Allah’s] orders, or prohibitions, or reward, or punishment, or Paradise, or Fire, or in one of the Messengers before Muhammad, sallallahu `alaihi wa sallam, or in a religion from among previous religions. Rather, they take the words of Allah and His Messenger, known to the scholars of Muslims, and they interpret them based on their fabrications, claiming that their interpretations are “hidden knowledge (“ilm `ul-baatin”), such as what the questioner mentioned and more. They have no limit in their unbelief with regards to Allah’s Names, His verses, and their distortion of the Speech of Allah, the Most High, and His Messenger from their proper places [usages]. Their aim is repudiation of Islamic Beliefs and Laws in every possible way, trying to make it appear that these matters have realities that they know, like those mentioned by the questioner and others, such as that “five prayers” means knowledge of their secrets, “obligatory fast” hiding of their secrets, and “pilgrimage to Bayt al-`Atiq” visit to their shaikhs, and that the two hands of Abu Lahab represent Abu Bakr and Umar, and that “the great news and the manifest imam” (an naba’ul `adheem wal imaamul mubin) is `Ali ibn Abi Talib.

There are well known incidents and books they have written with regards to their enmity to Islam and its people. When they have an opportunity, they spill the blood of Muslims, such as when they once killed pilgrims and threw them into the well of Zamzam. Once they took the black stone and it stayed with them for a period of time, and they have killed so many Muslim scholars and elders that only Allah knows their number. They wrote many books, such as what the questioner mentioned, and others.

Muslim scholars have written books, unveiling their secrets, exposing their veils, explaining what they are upon from disbelief, infidelity and atheism, by which they are greater disbelievers than the Jews, Christians, and Indian idol-worshipping Brahmans.

What the questioner mentioned as their description is a little from a great deal that is known to the scholars regarding their characteristics. It is known to us that the coast of Sham was only taken over by the Christians from their (Nusayri) side. And also that they are always on the side of every enemy against Muslims, so [you find that] they are with Christians against Muslims.

From the greatest afflictions that have befallen them are Muslims’ opening conquest of the coast (of Sham) and defeat of the Christians. Nay, one of the greatest afflictions that has befallen them is Muslims’ victory over Tatar, and from the greatest holidays for them is the Christians conquest – and refuge is sought with Allah the Most High – of Muslim ports.

They don’t admit that this world has a Creator that created it, or that He has a religion that he orders with, or that He has a place with which He will reward people for their deeds, other than this place (in this world).

[Majmoo` al-Faatwaa 35/145]

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Seclusion vs. Mixing

Q: Is it better for one to seclude himself from the people, or to mix with them?

A: This issue – even though the people have differed over it, either partially or entirely – the reality of it is that mixing with the people is sometimes obligatory or recommended. The same individual can sometimes be commanded to mix with others, and can at other times be commanded to seclude himself.

Mixing, if it involves cooperation upon good and piety, is obligatory, and if it involves cooperation upon sin and transgression, is forbidden. Mixing with the Muslims for the purpose of congregational acts of worship, such as the five prayers, the Friday prayer, the ‘Eid prayer, the eclipse prayer, the prayer for rain (istisqa’), etc., is from what Allah and His Messenger commanded…

…likewise, a gathering in which the worshipper can increase his faith – either because of it benefiting him, or his being of benefit to it – is of the same category.

However, a person must have time by himself to engage in supplication, remembrance, prayer, reflection, taking himself to account, and rectifying his heart. These are issues that nobody else can participate with him in, and these are affairs that need to be seen to on an individual basis, whether that be at home or otherwise, as Tawus said: “How excellent of a refuge is the home! In it, one can restrain his gaze and his tongue.”

So, choosing to mix with people unrestrictedly is wrong, and choosing to seclude yourself from people unrestrictedly is wrong.

[‘Majmu’ al-Fatawa’; 10/218]

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Articulating the Intention

(Translated by Abu Rumaysah)

Shaykh al-Islaam ibn Taymiyyah was asked:

Question 1:
Concerning the one who causes confusion in the lines of prayer and those around him by articulating the intention loudly. This was objected to but it did not deter him from persisting in this. A person said to him, ‘what you are doing is not from the religion of Allaah and you are contradicting the Sunnah.’ He replied, ‘this is from the religion of Allaah which He sent His Messengers with and it is obligatory upon every Muslim to do this and similarly the Qur’aan should be recited loudly behind an imaam.’ So did the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) or any one of his Companions use to do this? Or any one of the four Imaams or any of the Muslim scholars? And if the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) and his Companions and the scholars did not do this in prayer then what is obligatory upon the one who attributes this to them and does this? Is it permissible for a Muslim to come to his aid with even one word if he does this and attributes this to the religion by saying to those who are objecting, ‘everything that he is doing in his religion is what he desires and your objection is based upon ignorance!’ So are they correct in this or not?

The Answer:

All praises and thanks are due to Allaah. Articulating the intention in a loud voice is not legislated according to the opinion of all the Muslim scholars. The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) did not do it and neither did his Khaleefs, Companions, or the Salaf of this nation and their Imaams do it. Hence whosoever claims that this is part of the Religion of Allaah and that it is obligatory then it is necessary to teach him the Sharee’ah and ask him to repent from this opinion and if he still persists in this saying then he is to be killed. Rather the intention that is obligatory for the actions of worship such as wudu, ghusl, salaah, siyaam and zakaah etc. finds its place in the heart by agreement (ittifaaq) of the Imaams of the Muslims.

The intention is the desire to do something and the place for desire is in the heart and not upon the tongue by agreement of those possessing intelligence. So if a person were to intend something in his heart then this intention would be correct and proper according to the four Imaams and in fact all of the Imaams of the Muslims – their former ones and latter ones – there is no difference concerning this arising from those that deserve to be followed and those whose rulings deserve to be paid consideration.

However some of the later followers of the Imaams thought that the articulation of the intention was obligatory but they did not say that doing so in a loud voice was obligatory but despite this, this opinion is erroneous, contradicting the consensus (ijmaa) of the Muslims. This due to the fact that it is known by necessity in the Religion of Islaam to the one who knows the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) and the sunnah of his Khaleefs and knows how the Companions and their students used to pray that they did not articulate the intention and neither did the Prophet (SAW) command them to do so and neither did he teach this to any of his Companions.

Instead it is established in the Saheehs of Bukhaaree and Muslim that he (SAW) said to the Bedouin, “when you stand for prayer say the takbeer and then recite what is easy for you from the Qur’aan.”

In the Sunan it is reported from him (SAW) that he said, “the key to prayer is purification, it is entered by saying the takbeer and exited by saying the tasleem.”

In Saheeh Muslim from Aa’ishah (RA) that the Prophet (SAW) used to start the prayer by saying the takbeer and reciting ‘All praise is due to Allaah….’ [I.e. al-Faatihah].

It is established by mutawaatir transmission and the consensus of the Muslims that the Prophet (SAW) and the Companions used to commence the prayer with the takbeer and it is not reported by a Muslim, neither from the Prophet (SAW) or from his Companions, that they used to articulate the intention be it silently or loudly. It is known that had the case been otherwise then for sure it would have been reported just as it is known that it is impossible according to the Sharee’ah and habit for the people reporting something mutawaatir to hide such a thing, therefore due to the fact that no-one reports this it is safe to say with certainty that it did not occur.

This is why the later Legal Jurists differed over whether articulating the intention was something recommended alongside the intention in the heart. A group of the followers of Abu Haneefah, ash-Shaafi’ee and Ahmad considered it to be recommended while another group of the followers of Maalik, Ahmad and others did not consider it to be recommended, this being textually reported by Ahmad and others. Rather this latter group considered it to be a despicable innovation saying that had it been recommended then the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) would have done it or at least ordered it for he (SAW) explained everything that would cause one to draw close to Allaah, especially the prayer whose manner of performance is to be taken only from him. It is established from him in the Saheeh that he said, “pray as you have seen me praying.” Therefore this group said that adding this articulation to the prayer is of the same level as adding new actions of worship (to the Religion) such as the one who adds the adhaan and iqaamah to the Eed prayers or the one who adds two rak’ahs of prayer on Marwah while performing the circuit between Safah and Marwah.

Furthermore they said that articulating the intention is also wrong according to the intellect for the saying of someone ‘I intend to do so and so’ is of the same level as him saying ‘I intend to eat this food so that I may satisfy my appetite’ or ‘I intend to wear these clothes so that I may cover myself’ and other such intentions which are already present in the heart and therefore repugnant to articulate. Allaah said,

“Say: would you teach Allaah your religion when Allaah knows whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth?” [49:16]

A group of the Salaf said concerning the saying of Allaah, “we feed you seeking only the Face of Allaah” [76:9] – ‘they did not say this upon their tongues rather Allaah knew this from their hearts and informed us of this.’

In summary: there is no difference over the necessity of having the intention in the heart, as for articulating the intention then there is a difference amongst the later scholars whether it is detestable or recommended. As for articulating it loudly then this is detestable, forbidden and not legislated by agreement of the Muslims, the same goes for repeating the articulation in a louder voice.

This is true for the one leading the prayer, the one following the imaam and the one who is praying alone. It is not legislated for all of these to articulate the intention loudly or repeat this articulation by agreement of the Muslims rather they forbid this, rather it is not allowed even for the one who is praying alone to recite loudly in the case that this harms someone else. The Messenger of Allaah (SAW) went to his Companions while they were praying and said, “all of you are intimately conversing with his Lord so do not recite over each other.” As for the one who is following an imaam then the Sunnah is for him to recite silently by agreement of the Muslims, but if he were to, on some occasions, say a part of the dhikr loudly then there is no problem in this, for example if the imaam were to sometimes say a verse loudly in a prayer which is to be read silently. It is established in the Saheeh from Abu Qataadah that he (SAW) would sometimes let them hear a verse in the Dhuhr and Asr prayers.

And it is established in the Saheeh that from the Companions who were following him (SAW) in prayer were some who would say the opening supplication loudly and say the supplication when rising from ruku’ loudly and the Prophet (SAW) did not object to any of this.

The one who persists in performing a bid’ah and considering it to be good then it is desirable to punish him in such a way that would deter him and those like him from such things. Whosoever attributes something false to the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) has erred and if he knows and does not repent then he is to be punished. It is not lawful for anyone to speak about the religion without knowledge or to introduce into the religion something that is not part of it.

As for the saying, ‘everyone can do in his religion what he desires’ then this is a serious statement that is obligatory to repent from and if it is not then its proponent should be punished, rather persisting upon the likes if this statement necessitates killing. It is not upon anyone to do anything in the religion except for that which has been legislated by Allaah and His Messenger and not to do anything based on his whims and desires. Allaah says,

“And who is more misguided then one who follows his desires without guidance from Allaah?”[28:50]
“And many are misguided by their desires through ignorance.”[6:119]

“And do not follow desires such that you are misguided from the Way of Allaah”[38:26]

“And do not follow the desires of a people who were aforetime misguided and misguided many and went far astray.”[5:77]

“Do you see the one who has taken his desires as his god? Would you be a guardian over him? Or do you think that most of them hear or understand? They are as cattle – nay, further astray.”[25:43-44]

“And no by your Lord they cannot have faith until they make you to judge the disputes between them and then not find in themselves any aversion to what you have ruled and submit totally.”[4:65]

And it is reported (ruwiya) from the Prophet (SAW) that he said, “by the One in Whose Hand is my soul, none of you can have faith until his very desires comply to what I have come with.”{1} Allaah said,

“Do you not see those who pretend that they have believed in what has been revealed to you and what has been revealed before you desiring to seek the ruling of Taaghut when they have been commanded to reject it. Satan desires to misguide them far astray. And when it is said to them: Come to what Allaah has revealed and to the Messenger you see the hypocrites turn from you in aversion.” [4:60-61]

“Or do they have partners with Allaah who legislate in the religion that which Allaah has not given permission for?” [42:21]

“Alif Laam Meem Saad. A Book that is revealed to you so let there be no aversion in your heart from it, that you may warn thereby and a Reminder to the believers. Follow that which has been revealed from your Lord and do not follow any other protectors besides Him. Little do you take heed!” [7:1-3]

“And if the Truth had followed their desires then indeed the heavens and the earth and whosoever is in there would have been corrupted.” [23:71]

The verses like this in the Qur’aan are many and clarify that it is upon the servant to follow the truth which Allaah sent His Messenger with and not make his religion based upon his desires.

And Allaah knows best.

[Fataawaa al-Kubraa 1/5-8]

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Footnotes
{1} The hadeeth is reported as one of an-Nawawee’s 40 Hadeeth and it is da’eef. Refer to ‘Jaami al-Uloom wal Hikm’ (2: 317-318) of ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee. It was also declared da’eef by al-Albaanee in his checking to ‘as-Sunnah’ of ibn Abee Aasim and in his notes upon ‘Mishkaat al-Masaabeeh.’ Ibn Taymiyyah was correct in not attributing this hadeeth with certainty to the Messenger of Allaah (SAW) and in using a term which denotes that he considered the hadeeth to be inauthentic.

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Arrogance, Iman and Jannah

(Translated by Yahya Adel Ibrahim)

Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) was asked:
Regarding his statement,

“The one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his (spiritual) heart (intention, consciousness) shall not enter al-Jannah”

Is this hadith specific only to the believers (Mu‘minin) or (is it specific only to the) unbelievers (Kufar)? If we were to say that it is specific for the Believers then (is not) our statement trivial considering (the fact that) the believers shall enter al-Jannah (Paradise) due to their Iman . If, on the other hand, we were to say that the hadith is specific for the unbelievers then what is the relevance of the statement (since it is already known that the unbelievers shall not gain admission to al-Jannah)?

He (rahimahullah) answered: (Another) authentically reported wording of (this particular version of the) Hadith is,

“The one who possesses half of mustard seed of Kibr in his heart shall not be granted admission to Jannah; and the one who possesses half of a mustard seed of Iman shall not enter the (Eternal) Fire.” [1]

Kibr that openly opposes and negates Iman results in the banishment of its possessor from entering al-Jannah as is found in His (Allah, the Most High) statement:

“And your Lord said: “Invoke Me, [i.e. believe in My Oneness (Islamic Monotheism)] (and ask Me for anything) I will respond to your (invocation). Verily! Those who scorn (Yastakbirûn – Have Kibr) My worship [i.e. do not invoke Me, and do not believe in My Oneness, (Islamic Monotheism)] they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!” Ghaafir 40:60

This is the Kibr of Iblis (the Devil), Pharaoh and all the others who possessed Kibr that invalidated Iman . This is also the Kibr that the Jews possess and those whom Allah has described to us by saying:

“Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed.” Al-Baqarah 2: 87

Al-Kibr, in its entirety, openly opposes the essentials of al-Iman. As such he who has an iota of Kibr in his heart shall not act upon that which Allah has prescribed, nor shall he abstain from that which Allah has prohibited. Instead his Kibr shall result in his disavowal and rejection of the Haqq (Truth) and instill in him contempt of others. This, precisely, is the explanatory definition of al-Kibr provide by an-Nabi as is found in the complete version of the initial Hadith

“The one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his heart shall not be granted admission to Jannah.”

He was (then asked), “[But] O Messenger of Allah ! A man likes to have fine clothing and footwear. Is this included in Kibr?” He responded,

“No. Allah is Beauty and loves Beauty. Kibr is the rejection of Truth (Battrul-Haqq) and condescension of others (wa ‘ghamttun-Nas).”[2]

The statement Battarul-Haqq denotes distain and rejection of the Truth, while wa ghamttun-nas implies contempt and condescension of others from amongst mankind.

Therefore the one who possesses half of a mustard seed of it (Kibr) rejects the Truth that he was ordered to accept and act upon. At the same time, the Kibr instills in him a sense of condescension that inculcates in the individual an oppressive demeanor producing transgression over the rights of others.

The one who neglects his obligations (due to his rejection of them) and is oppressive to others from amongst the creation is not to be amongst the people of Jannah (while in this state), or deserving of it. On the contrary, such an individual is to be counted amongst the people who are threatened with punishment (Ahlul Wa‘id)!

His statement, “The one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his heart shall not be granted admission to Jannah,” implies that the individual is not from its (Jannah) people and is not deserving of it. But if he repents, or he possesses Hasanat (righteous deeds) that expiate his sins, or Allah has given him Ibtillah (trials and tests) in the form of calamities that have expunged his sins, or similar things; then for that individual the recompense of Kibr – which originally was a barrier for him to enter Jannah – is eliminated and he gains admission (to the Jannah). Similarly Allah, due to Divine Grace, may forgive the individual (the sin of) Kibr.[3] None shall gain admission (to Paradise) while possessing an iota of Kibr. As a result, those (scholars) discussing this Hadith, and other Hadith that have a similar theme, have stated:

“Unconditional admission (to the Jannah) – that is not in conjunction with punishment (for the sin of Kibr) – is what is being negated in this Hadith; not the admission to Jannah that is granted to those who enter the Fire (to be purified and cleansed) and then are allowed admission to Paradise thereafter. (On the other hand) if a Hadi th explicitly declares that a particular person is in Jannah or that a particular person is from the People of Jannah, it would then be understood that he would enter the Jannah and not enter the fire (beforehand).”

After this clarification we come to understand the true meaning of these narrations as being that the one who possesses an iota of Kibr in his heart is not from the people of Paradise (up to that point) and shall not gain admission into it without punishment (for his sin). Surely he deserves punishment – due to the enormity of the sin – similar to those who perform the Major (Kaba’ir) sins. Allah may punish him in the Fire as long as He wishes, but none from amongst the people of Tawhid shall remain in the Fire eternally.

This is to be the way we understand all the Hadith that have a similar meaning. This understanding is to be used when seeking the meaning of his statement:

“The one who severs the ties of the womb shall not enter Jannah. [4]

Or,

“You shall not enter Jannah until you believe. And you shall not believe until you love one another. Shall I inform you of something that if you do you shall (truly) love each other? Spread the greetings of Salam amongst yourselves.”

This is the understanding that we are to have when pondering over the Hadith that contain Wa‘id – Threat of Punishment. In this way we understand that the hadith is general and can be attributed to both the Kufar (unbelievers) and Muslims.

If one was to say, “All the Muslims enter Jannah due to their Islam.” The response is that not all Muslims enter Jannah without punishment. Surely the people who have been Threatened (with punishment in the Hereafter due to their sins) shall enter into the Fire to remain in it for the period that Allah so wills even though they are not Kufar. The individual who has some Iman coinciding with major sins may enter into the Fire and exit from it as a result of the Shafa‘ah (Intercession – permission from Allah to intercede) of an-Nabi or by other reported means as he has articulated. He said:

“My Shafa‘ah is for (shall benefit) the people of the Majors Sins (who did not commit Shirk) from amongst my Ummah.”[5]

And he said as is reported in the Sahih:

“I shall bring out of the Fire the one who possesses half of a mustard seed of Iman .”[6]

In this way we understand what is in store for those whom Allah has threatened with punishment – the murderer, fornicator/adulterer, the one who consumes intoxicants, and the one who misappropriates the wealth of the orphans, the one who witnesses falsehood and others who perform the deeds of the people of major sins. They – even if they are not unbelievers – are not deserving of the Jannah that they are promised (as Muslims) without first being (cleansed and purged through) punishment.

The Madh-hab (way and belief) of Ahlis-Sunnah wal-Jam‘ah is that the Fusaq (deviant sinners) from amongst the general body of Muslims are not going to be eternally punished in the Fire as has been stated by al-Khawarij [7] and al-Mu‘tazilah. [8]They are not complete in their religion (Din), Iman and obedience to Allah[9]] They have Hasanat wa Sayyi’at (good and bad deeds) that necessitate a measure of punishment and reward. This is a concise dissertation regarding the issue.

Wa Allahu a‘lam

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[1] Translator: Reported by Imam Muslim, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmithi on the authority of Ibn Mas‘ud. See Islah al-Masajid for Shaykh al-Albani rahimahullah.
[2] Translator: Reported by Imam Muslim (54), Ibn Khuzaymah, Abu Dawud, At-Tirmithi, Ibn Sa‘d on the authority of Ibn Mas‘ûd. At-Tabrani reports it on the authority of ‘Abdullah bin Salam

[3] Translator: Allah the Most High says in Surat an-Nisa’ (4:48):

“Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin..”

[4] Translator: Reported by al-Imam Muslim (1765 – Mukhtasar) al-Hakim, al-Bayhaqi, Abu Dawûd, and at-Tirmithi on the authority of Jubayr bin Mut‘am.

[5] Translator: Turn to the Chapter of “Shafa‘ah for the People of Major Sins” (Pg. 61-108) in the highly beneficial book of the world-renowned Muhadith ash-Shaykh Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi‘i(rahimahullah) titled, “Ash-Shafa‘ah.” In the chapter the Shaykh reports seventy-six (76) hadith showing that those who perform Major sins are not excluded from the Shafa‘ah of Rasûl ul Allah . This particular hadith can be found in the book on page 85 – Hadith number 56. Sh. Abi ‘Abdir-Rahman Muqbil bin Hadi reports that the Hadith is collected by at-Tirmithi (Vol. 4, Pg. 45) on the authority of Anas and Jabir. He then states: “And this Hadith is Hasan Sahih Gharib (Good and Authentic yet Scarce in this mode). The Hadith is reported by Ibn Khuzaymah (Pg. 270), Ibn Hibban as is in the Mawrid (Pg. 640), and al-Hakim (Vol. 1, Pg. 69) said – This Hadith is Authentic and meets the requirements set by Bukhari and Muslim even though they did not narrate it.” Later on the Shaykh rahimahullah says, “al-Hafidh Ibn Kathir said in his Tafsir (Vol. 1, Page 487) that its chain of Narration is Sahih and meets the requirements set by Bukhari and Muslim.” The Shaykh then takes us step by step through the Chain of narration and proves convincingly that the hadith does not meet the requirements of Bukhari and Muslim due to the presence of Mu‘mar reporting from Thabit. For further detailed analysis turn to Pg. 85-88. In Shaykh al-Albani’s Sahih al-Jami‘ he declares the Hadith Sahih on the authority of Jabir, Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn ‘Umar, Ka‘b bin ‘Ajrah and Anas.

[6] Translator: This is a segment of the famous Hadith of Shafa‘ah collected by Bukhari (Vol. 13, Pg. 472).

[7] Translator: Khawarij is the plural of Khariji – They are those who declared that a Muslim becomes a disbeliever due to commiting a major sin alone.

[8] Translator: Al-Mu‘tazila deem the one who does not agree with their understanding of Tawhid (7 false principles) is deemed a Mushrik. They believe that the sinners who are Muslim shall be in a place between Jannah and the Fire. There beliefs are built on false logical deductions that led them to negate many of the Names and Attributes of Allah. They were the deviant group who opposed Imam Ahlis-Sunnah Ahmed Ibn Hanbal by falsely claiming that the Qur’an is created and not the Speech of Allah.

[9] Translator: The Murji’ah believe that sins, major or minor, do not effect faith and that Iman neither increases nor decreases. They claim that actions are not part of faith and that people do not vary in faith.

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