Last Days

Zain-ud-din Abdur-Rahman relates that after completing 80 recitals of the Qur’aan, Ibn Taymiyyah started it all over again with him. However, when he reached the closing verses of Surah Al-Qamar – “Lo! The righteous will dwell among gardens and rivers firmly established in the favour of a Mighty King” – he expressed his desire to continue the recital further with Abdullah ibn Muhib and his brother Abdullah az-Zara’ee. These brothers were both pious and pure of heart, and their recital pleased Ibn Taymiyyah very much. He did not, however, complete this recital of the Qur’aan before the knell summoning him to heaven was sounded.

The Shaikh had been indisposed for a few days when the Governor of Damascus called upon him. At his request to pardon him for the inconvenience caused on his account, Ibn Taymiyyah replied: “I have already forgiven you and all those persons who have been hostile to me. They knew not that I was in the right. I bear no malice nor have I any grievance against the King for putting me in jail at the instance of the theologians. He did not do it of his own accord and is free from all responsibility in this regard. I have pardoned every man in this affair except those who are enemies of God and His Prophet.”

Ibn Taymiyyah was taken ill 22 days before his death. His health gradually deteriorated till the journey’s end drew near on the night of the 22nd of Dhul-Qa’da, 728 A.H., when he quit the world aged 67 years. “Everyone that is thereon will pass away there remained but the countenance of thy Lord of Might and Glory”. (ar-Rahman 55:26-27)

The crier of the Citadel Mosque announced Ibn Taymiyyah’s death from the minaret. In turn, this was repeated by the guards in the turrets and before long the news has spread like wildfire throughout the whole city. The gates of the fort were thrown open to allow wave after wave of teeming crowds to come and pay their last homage to their departed teacher. With tears brimming in their eyes, many of them kissed the forehead that frequently remained prostrated before the Lord.

The bier was brought to the Ummayad Mosque for the funeral service. The thronging crowd which was getting stronger every moment was so great that the soldiers has to force their way through, carrying the bier with great difficulty. With this vast multitude jostling and pushing to get near the bier many lost their shoes. At last the procession reached Suq al-Khalil where another funeral service was led by Ibn Taymiyyah’s younger brother Zain-ud-din Abdur-Rahman. After the service, Ibn Taymiyyah was laid to rest in Maqbarat-us-Sufiyah (1) by the side of his brother, Sharaf-ud-din Abdullah. It is estimated that some 60,000 to 100,000 persons of which at least 15,000 were women joined the funeral procession. (2)

In several Islamic countries lying to the south and east of Syria funeral services were held in absentia for Ibn Taymiyyah. Ibn Rajab, a chronicler who write Tabalaqat-ul-Hanabilah, says that funeral services were also held in several nearer and far-off lands like Yemen and China. “The funeral service of an expositor of the Qur’aan will now be held,” was the announcement made after Friday Prayuers in a far-off city according to travellers returning from China.

by Shaykh Sayyed Abu’l Hasan Ali an-Nadwi
Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah’s Life and Achievements
Published by UK Islamic Academy

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1.In this burial ground where such luminaries as Ibn Asakirm Ibn al-Salah, Ibn al-athir, Abul-Hajjaj al-Mizzi, Hafidh Imad-ud-din Ibn Katheer were buried, only the grave of Ibn Taymiyyah now remains in an open space before the hall of the University of Syria and the Hospital.

2.Ibn Katheer, vol.XIV pp 136-9

Ibn Taymiyyah’s Knowledge of Qur’an

If someone were to recite some verses of the Mighty Qur’an in one of his classes, he would proceed to explain them, and his class would end with this. His class would last for a good portion of the day, and he did not have a designated person to recite for him predetermined
verses that he would prepare for. Rather, any random person who was attending his class would recite what was easy for him, and Ibn Taymiyyah would then explain whatever was recited. He would usually not stop except that those in attendance would know that were it
not for the lack of time, he would have delved into what he was explaining from many, many more angles. However, he would stop in order to allow his listeners to rest.

For example, he delivered a tafsir of “Say, He is Allah, One.’” [1] that took up an entire huge volume. Also, his tafsir of “The Beneficent ascended the Throne.” [2] filled around 35 volumes, and I have been told that he began compiling a tafsir that would have taken up fifty volumes had he completed it.
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1. surah al-Ikhlas 1 [112:1]
2. surah Ta Ha verse 5 [20:5]

Taken from ‘The lofty virtues of Ibn Taymiyyah’
By The Imam, the Hafidh Abu Hafs ‘Umar bin ‘Ali al-Bazzar
Translated By Abu Sabaayaa

Commentary on the Verse 35:32

[Extracted from “The Criterion Between the Allies of the Merciful and the Allies of the Devil” And “An Introduction to the Principles of Tafseer” ]

“Then We gave the Book for inheritance to such of our servants as We chose. But there are among them those who wrong themselves (al-Dhaalim li Nafsi-hee), and those who are average in doing their duties (al-Muqtasid) and some who are by Allaah’s leave the foremost (al-Saabiq) in good deeds.” [al-Faatir (The Originator of Creation) 35, verse 32]

We know that al-dhaalim li nafsi-hi refers to those who neglect their obligatory duties and commit what has been forbidden. Similarly, the muqtasid means those who perform their duties and abstain from the forbidden; and the saabiq means those who go beyond others in seeking the pleasure of Allaah by doing superogatory things over and above the obligatory. Hence, the muqtasid are the people of the right hand and the saabiq are the most near and dear to Allaah.

[This is a reference to the Qur’aanic verses, 56:8, 10. “So those of the Right Hand (i.e. those who will be given their Records in their right hands), – Who will be those on the Right Hand? (As a espect for them, because they will enter Paradise).” 56:8″And those Foremost [(in Islamic Faith of Monotheism and in performing religious deeds of obedience to Allaah and His Messanger Muhammad /sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam/) in the life of this world on the very first call to embrace Islam,] will be foremost (in Paradise).” 56:10]

The Salaf (the early Muslims, of the first three generations: the Companions of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, their successors, and their successors) have explained these points with refence to one or the other act of obedience to Allaah. One has said: “The saabiq is the one who offers prayers at the earliest time; the muqtasid is the one who offers them late, but in time; and the dhaalim is the one who defers, for instance, the evening prayer till the sun turns pale.” Another has said that Allaah has described all the categories of men: the saabiq, the muqtasid and the dhaalim li nafsi-hi towards the end of the Soorah Baqarah where he has mentioned the muhsin or the generous (who) spend money in charity; the ‘Aadil or the just who trade; and the zaalim or the unjust who charge interest. People are either generous in matters of money, unjust or just. The saabiq are the generous ones who give money in charity over and above meeting their obligations, the dhaalim are those who take interest or fail to pay zakah and the muqtasid are those who pay zakah as well as refrain from taking interest, and so on.

– An Introduction to the Principles of Tafseer by Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyyah, p. 20-21


 
Allah mentioned the two groups of His allies – those who strive moderately, and the forerunners – in the sura called Fatir, saying:

[Then we passed the Book on to those whom we chose from among our slaves. Among them were those who opressed themselves (i.e. by disobeying Allah), thsoe who did good in moderation, and forerunners for good with the permission of Allah, that is the greatest of honous.Gardens of permanance which they enter. Therein they are dressed in bands of gold and pearls, and their clothes are made of silk. Theywill say: Praise be to Allah who has removed from us the fear (of falling into the forbidden during the life of this world), our Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Appreciative. He who settled us in the home of permanence and honour, no weariness will touch them therein, neither spiritual nor physical.] Qur’aan, 35/32-35

The three groups mentioned in these verses are the nation of Muhammad (sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) specifically, since they are the ones referred to in the phrase: Then, we passed the book onto those whom we chose from among our slaves.

The nation of Muhammad are the ones who were made to inherit the book after the previous nations, as a nation, and this does not refer specifically to those who memorised the Qur’an. Rather, everyone who believes in the Qur’an is one of this group, and Allah divided them into oppressors of themselves, doers of good in moderation, and forerunners. (…)

Thus, the oppressors of themselves are those who intentionnally commit major sins, the doers of good in moderation are those who perform the obligatory and avoid the forbidden, and the forerunners for good are those who fulfil the obligatory, and make extra effort with the nawaafil (non-obligatory actions pleasing to Allah), just as they were described in the above mentioned verses. Whoever repents from his sin – whatever his sin may be – a true and acceptable repentence, is not removed from being among the forerunners for good or the doers of good in moderation, as in Allah’s statement:

[And rush to forgiveness from your Lord and a garden whose width like the heavens and the earth which has been prepared for the pious. Those who spend in good times and in bad, who refrain themselves when enraged, and who are forbearing with people. Allah loves the doers of good. Those who, when they commit some outrage or oppress themselves (by disobedience to Allah), remember Allah and seek His forgiveness for their sins. And who can forgive sins except for Allah? And they do not persist in the wrong which they did after they know. Their reward is forgiveness from their Lord and gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein forever, and that is the reward of those who strive.] Qur’an, 3/133-6

– From The Criterion Between the Allies of the Merciful and the Allies of the Devil by Sheikh-ul-Islam Ibn-e-Taymiyyah, p. 35-36

credits to www.islaam.com

The Status of the Arabic Language in Islaam

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH THE MOST GRACIOUS AND THE MOST MERCIFUL

Sheikh ul-Islâm ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullaah

Iqtidaa‘us-Siraatil-Mustaqeem (2/207)

As for becoming accustomed to talking to one another in a language other than Arabic, which is the symbol of Islâm and the language of the Qur‘ân, so that this becomes a habit in the land, with one’s family and household members, with one’s friends, in the marketplace, when addressing government representatives or authority figures or when speaking to people of knowledge, undoubtedly this is makrooh (disliked), because it involves being like the non-Arabs, which is makrooh, as stated previously.

Hence when the early Muslims went to live in Syria and Egypt, where the people spoke Byzantine Greek, and in ’Iraq and Khurasaan, where the people spoke Persian, and North Africa (al-Maghrib) where the people spoke Berber, they taught the people of those countries to speak Arabic, so that Arabic became the prevalent language in those lands, and! all the people, Muslim and kafir alike, spoke Arabic. Such was also the case in Khurasaan in the past, then they became lax with regard to the language and got used to speaking Farsi until it became prevalent and Arabic was forgotten by most of them. Undoubtedly this is disliked.

The best way is to become accustomed to speaking Arabic so that the young people will learn it in their homes and schools, so that the symbol of Islâm and its people will prevail. This will make it easier for the people of Islâm to understand the Qur‘ân and Sunnah, and the words of the Salaf, unlike a person who gets used to speaking one language, then wants to learn another, and finds it difficult.

Know that being used to using a language has a clear and strong effect on one’s thinking, behaviour and religious commitment. It also has an effect on making one resemble the early generations of this Ummah, the Companions and the Taabi’een. Being like them improves one’s thinking! Religious commitment and behaviour.

Moreover, the Arabic language itself is part of Islâm, and knowing Arabic is an obligatory duty. If it is a duty to understand the Qur‘ân and Sunnah, and they cannot be understood without knowing Arabic, then the means that is needed to fulfill the duty is also obligatory.

There are things which are obligatory on all individuals (fard ’ayn), and others which are obligatory on the community or Ummah (fard kifaayah, i.e., if some people fulfill them the rest are relieved of the obligation.)

This is the meaning of the report narrated by Abu Bakr Ibn Abee Shaybah who said: Isa Ibn Yonus told us from Thawr from ’Umar Ibn Yazeed that ’Umar wrote to Abu Moosa al-Ash’aree radiallaahu ’anhu and said: {{Learn the Sunnah and learn Arabic; learn the Qur‘ân in Arabic for it is Arabic.}}

According to another hadith narrated from ’Umar radiyallaahu ’anhu, he said: {{Learn Arabic for it is part of your Religion, and learn how the estate of the deceased should be divided (faraa‘id) for these are part of your Religion.}}

This command of ’Umar, to learn Arabic and the Sharee’ah combines the things that are needed, for Religion involves understanding words and actions. Understanding Arabic is the way to understand the words of Islâm, and understanding the Sunnah is the way to understand the actions of Islâm…”

credits to www.islamhouse.com

How Tafseer is Performed?

If you ask what is the best method of tafsîr, the answer is that the best way is to explain the Qur’ân through the Qur’ân. For, what the Qur’ân alludes to at one place is explained at the other, and what it says in brief on one occasion is elaborated upon at the other. But if this does not help you, you should turn to the Sunnah, because the Sunnah explains and elucidates the Qur’ân. Imâm Abû ‘Abdullâh Muhammad Ibn Idrîs ash-Shâfi’î has said: “All that the Prophet, peace be upon him, has said is what he has derived from the Qur’ân.” Allâh has said:

We have sent down to you the book in truth that you may judge between me, as Allâh guides you; so do not be an advocate for those who betray their trust. [al-Qur’ân 4:105]

We have sent down to you the message that you may explain clearly to people what has been sent to them, and that they think over it. [al-Qur’ân 16:44]

We sent down the Book to you for the express purpose that you should make clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe. [al-Qur’ân 16:64]

This is why the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam said:

Know that I have been given the Qur’ân and something like it. [Ahmad, Musnad, Vol. IV 131; Abû Dâwûd, Sunan, Sunnah, 5]

Namely the Sunnah. In fact, the Sunnah, too has been given to him through wahy as the Qur’ân, except that it has not been recited to him as the Qur’ân. Imâm ash-Shâfi’î and other scholars have advanced a number of arguments in support of this point; but this is not the place to quote them. [For discussion see ash-Shâfi`î, ar-Risâlah]

In order to understand the Qur’ân, you should first look to the Qur’ân itself. If that does not help, then turn to the Sunnah.

The Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam sent Mu’âdh radiallâhu ‘anhu to Yemen and asked him: “How will you judge the cases (that come to you)?” He replied: “I will judge according to the Book of Allâh.” “But if you do not get anything there, what will you do?”, the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked. He said: “I will refer to the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam.” “But if you do not get it even there, what will you do?”, the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam asked again. He replied: “I will exercise my judgment.” Hearing this the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam patted Mu’âdh radiallâhu ‘anhu on the shoulder and said: “Praise be to Allâh who has guided the Messenger of His Messenger to what pleases His Messenger.”

This hadîth has been reported in the Musnad and Sunan collections of hadîth with a good isnâd. [Ahmad, Musnad V:230, 236, 242; ad-Dârimî, Sunan, Muqaddimah, 30; at-Tirmidhî, Sunan, Ahkâm, 3; Abû Dâwûd, Sunan, Adhiyah, 11.]

When you do not get any help from the Qur’ân or the Sunnah, turn to the words of the companions. For they know the Qur’ân better: they have witnessed its revelation, and passed through the situations in which it was revealed: and know it and understand it fully. This is particularly true of the scholars and leaders such as the four righteous caliphs and ‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd. Imâm Abû Ja’far Muhammad ibn Jarîr at-Tabarî reports: Abû Kurayb narrated to us, saying: Jâbir ibn Nûh informed us that: al-A’mash informed us from Abû Duhâ: from Masrûq that ‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd said: “By the one besides whom there none having the right to be worshipped, there is no verse in the Qur’ân about which I do not know in whose case and at what place was it revealed. If I were aware that anyone knew the Qur’ân more than me, and I could reach him, I would certainly have gone to see him.” [Ibn al-Athîr, Jâmi’ al-Usûl fî Ahâdîth ar-Rasûl, 1392/1972, Vol. IX p. 48.] Al-A’mash has also reported through Abû Wâ`il that Ibn Mas’ûd said: “When anyone of us learned ten verses of the Qur’ân, he did not proceed further unless he had known what they meant and what action they demanded.”

Another great scholar is ‘Abdullâh ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhumâ, the nephew of the Prophet sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam and the commentator of the Qur’ân. He attained that stature in virtue of the Prophet’s prayer: “O Allâh! Give him knowledge of Islâm and teach him the meaning of the Qur’ân.” [Ahmad, Musnad, Vol. 1: 266, 314, 328, 335]. Muhammad ibn Bashshâr narrated to us, that Wakî` informed us, that Sufyân informed us from al-A’mash: from Musim (ibn Sabîh Abî Duhâ) from Masrûq: that ‘Abdullâh ibn Mas’ûd radiallâhu ‘anhumâ said: “What a good interpreter of the Qur’ân Ibn ‘Abbâs is!” Ibn Jarîr has also reported this hadîth through Yahyâ ibn Dâwûd, from Ishâq al-Azraq, from Sufyân, from al-A’mash, from Muslim ibn Sabîh Abî Duhâ, from al-Masrûq with slightly different words: “What a good interpreter Ibn ‘Abbâs is of the Qur’ân!” He has also reported the same words through Bundar, from Ja’far ibn ‘Awn from al-A’mash. These words are, therefore, the actual words of Ibn Mas’ûd radiallâhu ‘anhumâ which he said about Ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhumâ. Ibn Mas’ûd radiallâhu ‘anhumâ died, most probably, in 33 A.H. Ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhumâ lived for thirty six years after him, and added a lot to the treasury of Islâmic knowledge.

Al-A’mash quotes from Abû Wâ’il that Ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhumâ was appointed leader of the Hajj by ‘Alî radiallâhu ‘anhu; he delivered a sermon and read from Sûrah al-Baqarah, or Sûrah an-Nûr according to another report, and explained it in such a way that had the Romans, Turks and the Dalamites heard it, they would have embraced Islâm. This is the reason why most of what Ismâ’îl ibn ‘Abd ar-Rahmân Suddî has written in tafsîr consists of the explanations of these two scholars: Ibn Mas’ûd and Ibn ‘Abbâs radiallâhu ‘anhum.

Source: www.sunnahonline.com, www.islamhouse.com

From ‘An Introduction to the Principles of Tafsîr’

Published by al-Hidaayah Publishing and Distribution